Seraiah - the scribe - Most likely the king's private secretary. See 1 Chronicles 24:3; (note).
For a similar account of the officers of Solomon‘s kingdom, see 1 Kings 4:1-6, where Jehoshaphat is still the recorder, and Benaiah is advanced to be captain of the host in the room of Joab. The recorder seems to have been a high officer of state, a kind of chancellor, whose office was to keep a record of the events of the kingdom for the king‘s information, and hence, he would naturally be the king‘s adviser. See Esther 6:1-2; Isaiah 36:22; 2 Chronicles 34:8. Such an officer is found among the ancient Egyptians and Persians.
Ahimelech the son of Abiathar - According to 1 Samuel 22:9-23, Abiathar, Zadok‘s colleague, was the son of Ahimelech. Abiathar the son of Ahimelech continued to be priest through the reign of David. (Compare also 1 Kings 1:7, 1 Kings 1:42; 1 Kings 2:22-27.) It almost necessarily follows that there is some error in the text.
2 Samuel 8:18
The Cherethites and the Pelethites - See the marginal reference note.
Chief rulers - The word כהן kôhên here rendered a “chief ruler,” is the regular word for a priest. In the early days of the monarchy the word כהן kôhên had not quite lost its etymological sense, from the root meaning to minister, or manage affairs, though in later times its technical sense alone survived.