The Lord said unto my Lord - Jehovah said unto my Adoni. That David's Lord is the Messiah, is confirmed by our Lord himself and by the apostles Peter and Paul, as we have already seen.
Sit thou at my right hand - This implies the possession of the utmost confidence, power, and preeminence.
Until I make thine enemies - Jesus shall reign till all his enemies are subdued under him. Jesus Christ, as God, ever dwelt in the fullness of the Godhead; but it was as God-man that, after his resurrection, he was raised to the right hand of the Majesty on high, ever to appear in the presence of God for us.
The Lord said unto my Lord - In the Hebrew, “Spake Jehovah to my Lord.” The word יהוה Yahweh is the incommunicable name of God. It is never given to a created being. The other word translated “Lord - אדני 'Adonāy - means one who has rule or authority; one of high rank; one who has dominion; one who is the owner or possessor, etc. This word is applied frequently to a creature. It is applied to kings, princes, rulers, masters. The phrase “my Lord” refers to someone who was superior in rank to the author of the psalm; one whom he could address as his superior. The psalm, therefore, cannot refer to David himself, as if Yahweh had said to him, “Sit thou at my right hand.” Nor was there anyone on earth in the time of David to whom it could be applicable; anyone whom he would call his “Lord” or superior. If, therefore, the psalm was written by David, it must have reference to the Messiah - to one whom he owned as his superior - his Lord - his Sovereign. It cannot refer to God as if he were to have this rule over David, since God himself is referred to as “speaking” to him whom David called his Lord: “Jehovah said unto my Lord.” The reasoning of the Saviour, therefore, in Matthew 22:43-45, was founded on a fair and just interpretation of the psalm, and was so plain and conclusive that the Pharisees did not attempt to reply to it. Matthew 22:46. See the notes at that passage. No other interpretation “can” be given to it, consistently with the proper rules of expounding language, unless it be shown that the psalm was not composed by David, and might, therefore, be applied to someone whom the author would acknowledge as his “Lord.” But there is no evidence of this, and there is no one in the Old Testament history to whom the psalm would be applicable.
Sit thou at my right hand - The position of honor and of rank. Compare the notes at Psalm 16:8. See also Psalm 45:9; Mark 14:62; Luke 22:69; Acts 7:55; Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 8:1. The phrase is properly applicable to the Messiah as exalted to the highest place in the universe - the right hand of God.
Until I make thine enemies thy footstool - Until they are entirely subdued under time. See the notes at Matthew 22:44. The enemies here referred to are the enemies of the Messiah considered as King (see Psalm 2:1-12); and the promise here is, that “he must reign until he shall have put all enemies under his feet.” See the notes at 1 Corinthians 15:25.