The caul above the liver - Probably the membrane covering the upper part of the liver.
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Concise Bible Commentary
The peace-offerings had regard to God as the giver of all good things. These were divided between the altar, the priest, and the owner. They were called peace-offering, because in them God and his people did, as it were, feast together, in token of friendship. The peace-offerings were offered by way of supplication. If a man were in pursuit of any mercy, he would add a peace-offering to his prayer for it. Christ is our Peace, our Peace-offering; for through him alone it is that we can obtain an answer of peace to our prayers. Or, the peace-offering was offered by way of thanksgiving for some mercy received. We must offer to God the sacrifice of praise continually, by Christ our Peace; and then this shall please the Lord better than an ox or bullock.
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SDA Bible Commentary (limited)
5. A sweet savour. Inasmuch as the fat was burned on the altar, “a sweet savour unto the Lord,” it seems inconsistent to hold, as some do, that it was a symbol of sin. Sin is an abomination to God, and nothing symbolizing it was permitted to come on the altar. It was for this reason that leaven, as a symbol of sin, was excluded (ch.2:11, 12). Psalms 37:20 is sometimes quoted as proof that “fat” signifies sin. But the word translated “fat” is yaqar, and means “beauty,” “magnificence,” or “preciousness” rather than “fat.” It is the same word God uses in calling His people “precious” (Isa. 43:4). The fat was always burned on the altar; God claimed it as His (Lev. 3:16); it was a “sweet savour” unto the Lord; it was precious; it was “the food of the offering” presented to the Lord (v.16). To “eat the fat of the land” (Gen. 45:18) meant to enjoy the best it had to offer.